Different types of professional integration and the attitude from unions and politicians
This article suggests taking into account both the degree of satisfaction at work and the degree of job stability, presenting them as two fundamental measurements of professional integration. The former relates to the productive logic of business and to the complementarity of functions in work organization, the latter relates to the protective logic of the « welfare state » where social rights stemming from unemployment are recognized. By combining these two measurements it is possible to distinguish four types of professional integration : definite integration, uncertain integration, laborious integration and disqualifying integration. After this analysis, the hypothesis of there being simply an underclass with all the handicaps and all the other salaried workers grouped together is challenged. It equally underlines the fact that radicalism and the wish for social change observed among the less integrated fringes of the salaried workers are not expressed through a revolutionary conscience but due to a process of disillusion in both company life and political life in general. This is particularly apparent in salaried workers situated around the disqualifying integration type as they are more distrustful of personnel representatives, they have a stronger feeling of uselessness in the company and a greater tendency to abstain from voting. This phenomenon can be considered both as a way to express a feeling of void, or partial void in political representation, and as a deterioration of social cohesion.